Eduardo R. Miranda
"... a formidable composer"
- Wire -
"If the goal is to push music-making beyond conventional bounds, Miranda and his colleagues must surely have succeeded."
- MIT Technology Review -
"Today marks a fascinating musical first ... a performance of the world's first Brain-Computer Music Interface (BCMI) quartet."
- The Observer -
(replace _AT_ by @)
Welcome to my blog-like webpage!
Tweets by @bio_computer
I am a composer working at the crossroads of music and science. I compose music for symphonic orchestras, chamber groups, solo instruments - with and without live electronics - and electroacoustic music. In addition to concert music, I compose for theatre and contemporary dance.
I teach and conduct research at the University of Plymouth, UK, where I am director of the Interdisciplinary Centre for Computer Music Research (ICCMR).
My music has been performed at festivals and concerts worldwide, by renowned performers and ensembles, including Bergersen String Quartet (London), Hausmann Quartet (San Diego), Leo String Quartet (City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra), Sond'Ar-te Electric Ensemble (Lisbon), Chamber Group of Scotland, Scottish Chamber Orchestra, BBC Concert Orchestra, BBC Singers and Ten Tors Orchestra
In 2017 I had the privilege to be be nominated Biofaction's Artist in Residence to develop the concept of artificial biology & music, and compose a new piece for percussion and electronics, using codes of DNA: Artibiotics. Learn more about this work in an interview I gave to Music Matters on BBC Radio 3.
I have recently been appointed Artist in Residence at the Institute of Electronic Music and Acoustics (IEM) of the University of Music and Performing Arts of Graz, Austria, as part of the Inter_agency research project.
The recording of my symphony Mind Pieces and an accompanying e-book have recently been published by Intelligent Arts, in the USA. The e-book is available now from Amazon and Apple.
I am a leading pioneer of the field of Brain-Computer Music Interfacing. I coined the term Brain-Computer Music Interfacing, abbreviated as BCMI, which is now generally used to refer to research in this area. With my team at the University of Plymouth I developed BCMI technology aimed at individuals suffering from severe motor impairment. Our system enabled Ms Johnson, a former National Welsh Opera violinist, who became paralysed after an horrific accident 30 years ago, to enjoy making music again. I am proud that my research enabled Ms Johnson to develop activity, which resulted in a MBE award for services to music in 2017. This work starred in the film Music of the Mind, produced by Grey London for Volvo & Sky Atlantic, as part of the Human Made Stories series. Click on the photograph below to watch the film.
A selection of interviews and news articles from the the international press are available on-line with Scoop.It. (Click on the icon below to see them.)
[ Before 2018 ] [ From 2018 onwards ]
Miriam Richter interviewed me for Computer Music Journal about how I became a composer working with computers, my approaches to computer-aided composition, amongst other things. A comprehensive list of my compositions is also provided. To access the interview, click on the journal cover below.
Samples of my music are available online at SoundCloud and through my Vimeo video channel. (Click on the icons below to access these.)
I am honoured to have been invited by BBC Earth to join Sir David Attenborough, Oscar-winning filmmaker Hugh Welchman and Nicholas Negroponte, the founder of MIT Media Lab, to present fresh insights into the boundary-pushing technology used to reveal wonders of our natural world at the prestigious EG Conference in California in 2016. (Click on the photo to watch.)
"EG is like an episode of The Twilight Zone, except time doesn't stop and then everything shatters." (Matt Groening, creator of The Simpsons)
Recent keynotes and talks include:
In the run-up for a talk I gave at Medicine Unboxed (Parabula Arts Centre in Cheltenham, November 2013) I wrote an article on voice and technology for the The Guardian's blog Notes & Theories. Click on the icon below to access it.
I had the opportunity to discuss my work on AI in music composition in The Forum - broadcast by BBC World Service - with BBC diplomatic correspondent, Bridget Kendall, UCL's cell therapy maverick, Prof Chris Mason, and MIT's economist, Prof Esther Duflo. A truly interdisciplinary discussion with examples from my symphonic work, Mind Pieces (see below). Click on the icon below for more information and to access the podcast.
In 2011-2012 I was composer-in-residence at the Science Museum, London, working with Lottolab Studio. Other residencies include: Biofaction / Wagner Lab (Regensburg, Germany), MIT Media Lab (Cambridge, USA), USEAC (Harvard University Studio for Electroacoustic Composition, Cambridge, USA), CCMIX (Centre de Création Musicale Iannis Xenakis, Paris, France), IMEB (Institut International de Musique Electroacoustique de Bourges, France), Fundació Phonos (Barcelona, Spain), Luciano Berio's Centro Tempo Reale (Florence, Italy), Banff Center (Banff, Canada), IRCAM (Paris, France), NOTAM (Oslo, Norway) and IEM (Institut für Elektronische Musik und Akustik, Graz, Austria).
For all other features and stories on the BBC, click [ HERE ]
Impact: International Press
"It sounds like science fiction, but music made via MRI scans of our heads is here."
- The Sunday Times -
Click on the icon to read the profile article by Andrew Smith
My work has been reported by the press worldwide. Below is a short selection of news stories published by magazines in Egypt, Norway, Italy, UK, Lebanon, Netherlands, Germany and USA. Click on the covers of the magazines below to read the articles.
Neil Bowdler, a reporter of BBC Radio 4's The World at One programme, paid a visit to ICCMR, the leading contemporary music research lab that I run at Plymouth University in the UK, to produce a documentary, which can be heard by clicking on the icon below.
Click on the photo below to hear a chat with Sean Rafferty about my Symphony of Minds Listening on BBC Radio 3's In Tune.
Music"... Clever, and strangely soothing, its sound blipped, splattered and dripped, ending in a scrunching cascade of high splintered sound."
- The Scotsman -
"Mozart for a modern world"
"With the aid of a small string ensemble, this work definitely had something to say, even if the language was not immediately familiar to more classically-trained listeners."
- Seen and Heard International -
Most of the CDs below can be bought online; e.g., via Amazon. Should you be interested in a particular recording or CD and you cannot find it in the market, please do not hesitate to contact me.
Computer-Aided Symphonic Works
My latest CD album is published by Da Vinci Classics.
Make no mistake! This is real fully-fledged professional symphonic music.
This album is available on Amazon, Spotify and iTunes, and other online shops.
Pieces on this CD:
Mother Tongue is published and distributed by Sargasso.
The album in available on iTunes and Spotify, and other online shops.
Pieces on this CD:
... These are immensely sophisticated pieces that constitute an electronic global music of convincingly organic simplicity. Brian Morton, Wire
This special Sargasso Limited Edition of 100 signed copies includes a book, 2 CDs and an original print. The book contains an essay by about the compositional process involved in the creation of the piece, a foreword by Professor Andy Miah, and the full score of the piece. It also includes a unique signed print by Peter BB Davis, created especially for this edition.
Part of CD compilations and CDs accompanying publications
Below is only a short list of representative concerts and festivals all over the world where my music has been performed .
"[Prof Miranda's] research into the evolution of music may change the way in which we create music"
- New Electronics -
|My research interests and
composition (including algorithmic, computer-aided and
electroacoustic), sound synthesis, new musical interfaces, expressive
music performance (by machines), brain-computer music interfacing,
evolutionary computer music, music neurotechnology, unconventional
computation (for music technology) and artificial intelligence.
I am proud of the impact of my pioneering research into Music Neurotechnology, which was the topic of a lecture I gave in 2017 at The Royal Institution, London.
I am developing Brain-Computer Music Interfacing (or BCMI) technology for people with severe physical disabilities. My team and I demonstrated this technology in a public concert with an ensemble of severely motor-impaired patients at the Royal Hospital for Neuro-disability, London. I believe this was the first ever concert of this kind.
Click othe logos below to read a selected sample of stories in the international media available on-line:
Since 2015 I have been championing research into Unconventional Computing for musical applications. My team and I are developing electronic components grown out of biological material. Click on the photograph below to watch one of our components growing an electric filament from a slime mould known as Physarum polycephalum.
We implemented what is perhaps the first ever musical biocomputer, based on living organic components cultured on a circuit board. The system listens and makes variations on the listened materials. Click on the photograph below to watch a demonstration with Juilliard pianist Derek Wang.
An article introducing the research into biocomputing appeared in Interalia Magazine and Sumit Paul-Choudhury, the editor-in-chief of News Scientist, wrote an excellent article about it. (Click on the icon below to read it.) The work was also featured in the multi-award winning short science-fiction film The Creeping Garden, by Tim Grabham and Jasper Sharp.
My research into modelling the evolution of music using robots has been in the news all over. The singing robots that learn how to sing melodies by babbling to each other have caught people's imagination. See short article We, Robots in Reason, published in the USA.
In 2011 I won the Vice-Chancellor's World Class Research Award at Plymouth University for my "outstanding contribution to the research and outward-facing agenda" of the institution.
"It explores an artist's creative process
in a degree of detail
that is seldom documented."
Philip Balla, uthor of The Music Instinct
[Click here] for an order form. It is recommend that you order directly from publisher.
[Click here] for a review by Victor Lazzarini, National University of Ireland Maynooth, in Computer Music Journal.
Edited thematic journal issues
Research papers: journals"... author of one of the top 5% most highly cited papers in [his] field worldwide"
- Council of Canadian Academies -
published over 200 refereed research papers in conference
proceedings, journals and book chapters. Only peer-reviewed research
papers published in learned journals
are listed below. See also my Academia.edu or ResearchGate repositories.
 Miranda, E. R., Antoine, A., Celerier, J-M. and Desainte-Catherine, M. (2019). "i-Berlioz: Towards Interactive Computer-Aided Orchestration with Temporal Control", International Journal of Music Science, Technology and Art 1(1):15-23.
 Miranda, E. R., Braund, E. and Venkatesh, S. (2018). "Composing with Biomemristors: Is Biocomputing the New Technology of Computer Music?", Computer Music Journal 42(3):28-46. doi: https://doi.org/10.1162/comj_a_00469
 Daly, I., Williams, D., Malik, A., Weaver, J., Kirke, A., Hwang, F., Miranda, E. R. and Nasuto, S. J. (2018). “Personalised, Multi-modal, Affective State Detection for Hybrid Brain-Computer Music Interfacing”, IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing. doi: 10.1109/TAFFC.2018.2801811
 Mcloughlin, M., Lamoni, L., Garland, E., Ingram, S., Kirke, A., Rendell, L and Miranda, E. R. (2018). "Using agent-based models to understand the role of individuals in the song evolution of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae)", Music & Science 1(1):1-17. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/2059204318757021
 Norowi, N. M., Miranda, E. R. and Hussin, M. (2017). "Parametric Factors Affecting Concatenative Sound Synthesis", Advanced Science Letters 23(6):5496-5500. doi: https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2017.7407
 Miranda, E. R. and Braund, E. (2017). "Interactive Musical Biocomputer: An unconventional approach to research in unconventional computing", Symmetry: Culture and Science 28(1):7-20.
 Nicolaou, N., Malik, A., Daly, I., Weaver, J., Hwang, F., Kirke, A., Roesch, E. B., Williams, D., Miranda, E. R. and Nasuto, S. (2017). "Direct Motor-Auditory EEG Connectivity Is Modulated by Music Tempo", Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00502
 Miranda, E. R. and Braund, E. (2017). "A Method for Growing Bio-memristors from Slime Mould", JoVE - Journal of Visualized Methods. [ Online ]
 Visi, F., Coorevits, E., Schramm, R. and Miranda, E. R. (2017). "Musical Instruments, Body Movement, Space, and Motion Data: Music as an Emergent Multimodal Choreography", Human Technology, 13(1):58081. [ Online ]
 Williams, D., Kirke, A., Miranda, E., Daly, I, Hwang, F., Weaver, J., Nasuto, S. (2017). "Affective Calibration of Musical Feature Sets in an Emotionally Intelligent Music Composition System", ACM Transactions of Applied Perception, 14(3):1-13. doi:10.1145/3059005
 Braund, E. and Miranda, E. R. (2017). "On Building Practical Biocomputers for Real-World Applications: Receptacles for Culturing Slime Mould Memristors and Component Standardisation", Journal of Bionic Engineering, 14(1):151-162.
 Williams, D. Mears, J. Kirke, A., Miranda, E., Daly, I., Malik, A., Weaver, J., Hwang, F. and NAsuto, S. (2016). "A Perceptual and Affective Evaluation of an Affectively-Driven Engine for Video Game Sountracking", ACM Computers in Entertainment, 14(3): Online.
 Daly, I., Williams, D., Hwang, F., Kirke, A., Malik, A., Weaver, J., Miranda, E. R., Nasuto, S. J., (2016). "Affective Brain-Computer Music Interfacing", Journal of Neural Engineering, 13:4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2560/13/4/046022
 Miranda, E. R. (2016). "The music of particle collisions". Nature Physics 12(8):721.
 Kirke, A.J., Shadbolt, P., Neville, A. and Miranda, E. R. (2015). "A Hybrid Computer Case Study for Unconventional Virtual Computing", International Journal of Unconventional Computing, 11(3-4):205-226.
 Miranda, E. R. (2015). "Music Neurotechnology: From Music of the Spheres to Music of the Hemispheres", Symmetry: Culture and Science, 26(3):353-378.
 Daly, I., Williams, D., Hallowell, J., Hwang, F., Kirke, A., Malik, A., Weaver, J., Miranda, E., Nasuto, S. (2015). "Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features", Brain and Cognition, 101:1-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2015.08.003.
 Williams, D., Kirke, A., Miranda, E., Daly, I., Hallowell, J., Weaver, J., Malik, A., Roesch, E., Hwang, F., Nasuto, S. (2015). "Investigating Perceived Emotional Correlates of Rhythmic Density in Algorithmic Music Composition", ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 12(3): article 8. DOI: 10.1145/2749466.
 Eaton, J., Williams, D., and Miranda, E. (2015). "The Space Between Us: Evaluating a multi-user brain-computer music interface", Brain-Computer Interfaces, 2-3:103-116. DOI: 10.1080/2326263X.2015.1101922.
 Kirke, A., Freeman, S. and Miranda, E. R. (2015). "Wireless Interactive Sonification of Large Water Waves to Demonstrate the Facilities of a Large-Scale Research Wave Tank", Computer Music Journal, 39(3):59-70. DOI: 10.1162/COMJ_a_00315.
 Miranda, E. R. and Williams , D. (2015). "Artificial Intelligence in Organised Sound", Organised Sound, 20(1): 76-81.
 Kirke, A. and Miranda, E. (2015). "Multi-Agent Emotional Society Whose Melodies Represent its Emergent Social Hierarchy and Are Generated by Agent Communications", Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 18(2): article 15. Online Journal
 Kirke, A., Eaton, J. and Miranda, E. (2015) “Real-time Hallucination Sonification and Simulation through User-led Development of an iPad Augmented Reality Performance”, Leonardo, 48(3): 235-242.
 Daly, I., Hwang, F., Kirke, A., Malik, A., Weaver, J., Williams, D., Miranda, E. and Nasuto, S. (2015). "Automated identification of neural correlates of continuous variables", Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 242(2015):65-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.12.012.
 Miranda, E. R, (2014). "Harnessing the Intelligence of Physarum Polycephalum for Unconventional Computing-Aided Musical Composition", International Journal of Unconventional Computing, 10(3):251-268.
 Schramm, R., Jung, C. R. and Miranda, E. R. (2014). "Dynamic Time Warping for Music Conducting Gestures Evaluation", IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, DOI:
 Daly, I., Williams, D., Hwangm F., Kirke, A., Malik, A., Roesch, E., Weaver, J., Miranda, E., Nasuto, S. (2014). "Investigating music tempo as feedback mechanism for closed-loop BCI control", Brain-Computer Interfaces, DOI: 10.1080/2326263X.2014.979728
 Daly, I., Malik, A., Hwang, F., Roesch, E., Weaver, J., Kirke, A., Williams, D., Miranda, E. and Nasuto, S. J. (2014). "Neural correlates of emotional responses to music: an EEG study", Neuroscience Letters, DOI: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2014.05.003.
 Kirke, A. and Miranda, E. R. (2014). "Pulse Melodic Affective Processing: Musical structures for increasing transparency in emotional computation", Simulation: Transactions of the Society for Modeling and Simulation International, 90(50):606-622.
 Kirke, A. and Miranda, E. R. (2014). "Unconventional Computer and Teaching: Proposal for MUSIC, a Tone-Based Scripting Language for Accessibility, Computation and Education", International Journal of Unconventional Computing, 10(3): 237-249.
 Kirke, A. and Miranda, E. R. (2014). "Towards Harmonic Extensions of Pulsed Melodic Affective Processing - Futher Musical Structures for Increasing Transparency in Emotional Computation", International Journal of Unconventional Computing, 10(3): 199-217.
 Serquera, J. and Miranda, E. R. (2014). "Histogram Mapping Synthesis: A Cellular Automata-Based Technique for Flexible Sound Design." Computer Music Journal, 38(4):1-15, DOI:10.1162/COMJ_a_00267
 Williams, D., Kirke, A., Miranda, E. R., Roesch, E., Daly, I., and Nasuto, S. (2014). "Investigating affect in algorithmic composition systems." Psychology of Music. Published online before print August 15, 2014. DOI: 10.1177/0305735614543282
 Kirke, A. and Miranda, E. (2012). "Pulsed Melodic Affective Processing – Using Music for Natural Affective Computation and Increased Processing Transparency", Neural, Parallel, and Scientific Computations, 20:227-240.
 Miranda, E. R., Adamatzky, A. and Jones, J. (2011). "Sounds Synthesis with Slime Mould of Physarum Polycephalum", Journal of Bionic Engineering, 8(2011): 107-113.
 Anders, T. and Miranda, E. R. (2011). "A Computational Model for Rule-Based Microtonal Music Theories and Composition", Perspectives of New Music, 48(2): 47-77.
 Miranda, E. R., Magee, W., Wilson, J. J., Eaton, J., and Palaniappan, R. (2011). “Brain-Computer Music Interfacing (BCMI): From Basic Research to the Real World of Special Needs", Music and Medicine, DOI: 10.1177/1943862111399290
 Anders, T. and Miranda, E. R. (2011). “A Survey of Constraint Programming Systems for Modelling Music Theories and Composition”, ACM Computing Surveys, 43(4):Article 30.
 Anders, T. and Miranda, E. R. (2010). “Constraint Application with Higher-Order Programming for Modeling Music Theories”, Computer Music Journal, 34(2):25-38.
 Miranda, E. R. (2010). "Contextualizing Eighteenth Century Enlightenment Through the Lenses of Contemporary Science", Physics of Life Reviews, 7:35-36.
 Miranda, E. R. (2010). “Plymouth brain-computer music interfacing project: from EEG audio mixers to composition informed by cognitive neuroscience”, International Journal of Arts and Technology, 3(2/3):154-176.
 Miranda, E. R. (2010). “Organised Sound, Mental Imageries and the Future of Music Technology: A Neuroscience Outlook”, Organised Sound 15(1):13-25.
 Miranda, E. R., Kirke, A., Zhang, Q. (2010). “Artificial Evolution of Expressive Performance of Music: An Imitative Multi-Agent Systems Approach”, Computer Music Journal, 34(1):80-96
 Anders, T. and Miranda, E. R. (2009). “Interfacing Manual and Machine Composition”. Contemporary Music Review, 28(2):133-147.
 Durrant, D., Hardoon, D. R., Brechmann, A., Shawe-Taylor, J., Miranda, E. R. and Scheich, H. (2009). “GLM and SVM analyses of neural response to tonal and atonal stimuli: new techniques and a comparison”, Connection Science, 21(2-3):161-175.
 Kirke, A. and Miranda, E. R. (2009). "A Survey of Computer Systems for Expressive Music Performance", ACM Computing Surveys, 42(1):Article 3.
 Miranda, E. R., Bull, L., Gueguen, F. and Uroukov, I. S. (2009). "Computer Music Meets Unconventional Computing: Towards Sound Synthesis with In Vitro Neural Networks", Computer Music Journal, 33(1):09-18.
 Miranda, E. R. and Matthias, J. (2009). "Music Neurotechnology for Sound Synthesis", Leonardo, 42(5):439-442.
 Miranda, E. R. (2008). "Emergent Songs by Social Robots", Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 20(4):319-334.
 Miranda, E. R., and Maia Jr., A. (2007). "Spectral Fuzzy Sets and Markov Streaming for Granular Synthesis of Sound", Symmetry: Culture and Science, 18(2-3):223-241.
 Miranda, E R. (2006). “Brain-computer music interface for composition and performance”, International Journal on Disability and Human Development, 5(2):119-125.
 Miranda, E. R. (2005). “Artificial Phonology: On Synthesising Disenbodied Humanoid Voice for Composing Music with Surreal Languages”, Leonardo Music Journal, 15:8-16.
 Miranda, E. R. and Brouse, A. (2005). “On Interfacing the Brain Directly with Musical Systems”, Leonardo, 38(4):331-336.
 Miranda, E. R. and Valsamakis, N. (2005). “Iterative Sound Synthesis using Cross-Coupled Digital Oscillators”, Digital Creativity, 16(2):79-92.
 Miranda, E. R. (2004). “At the Crossroads of Evolutionary Computation and Music: Self-Programming Synthesizers, Swarm Orchestras and the Origins of Melody”, Evolutionary Computation, 12(2):137-158.
 Miranda, E. R., Roberts, S. and Stokes, M. (2004). “On Generating EEG for Controlling Musical Systems”, Biomedizinische Technik, 49(1):75-76.
 Westerman, G. and Miranda, E. R. (2004). “A New Model of Sensorimotor Coupling in the Development of Speech”, Brain and Language, 82(2):393-400.
 Miranda, E. R., Kirkby, S. and Todd, P. (2003). "On Computational Models of the Evolution of Music: From the Origins of Musical Taste to the Emergence of Grammars", Contemporary Music Review, 22(2):91-110.
 Miranda, E. R. (2003). “On the evolution of music in a society of self-taught digital creatures”, Digital Creativity, 14(1):29-42.
 Miranda, E. R. (2003). “On the Music of Emergent Behaviour: What can Evolutionary Computation Bring to the Musician?”, Leonardo, 36(1):55-58.
 Miranda, E. R., Sharman, K., Kilborn, K., Duncan, A. (2003). “On Harnessing the Electroencephalogram for the Musical Braincap”, Computer Music Journal, 27(2):80-102.
 Westerman, G. and Miranda, E. R. (2003). “Modelling the Development of Mirror Neurons for Auditory-Motor Integration”, Journal of New Music Research, 31(4):367-375.
 Bilotta, E., Miranda, E. R., Pantano, P and Todd, P. (2002). “Artificial Life for Musical Applications: Workshop Report”, Artificial Life, 8(1):83-86.
 Miranda, E. R. (2002). “Emergent Sound Repertoires in Virtual Societies”, Computer Music Journal, 26(2):77-90.
 Miranda, E. R., (2002). “Generating Source Streams for Extralinguistic Utterances”, Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 50(3):165-172.
 Miranda, E. R., Correa, J. S., Wright, J. (2000). “Categorising Complex Dynamic Sounds”, Organised Sound, 5(2):95-102.
 Miranda, E. R., McAlpine, K. and Hoggar, S. (1999). “Making Music with Algorithms: A Case Study”, Computer Music Journal, 23(2):19-30.
 Miranda, E. R. (1998). “The Role of Speech Synthesis in Requiem per una veu perdudua”, Organised Sound, 3(3):235-240.
 Miranda, E. R. (1997). “Machine Learning and Sound Design: A Case Study”, Leonardo Music Journal, 7:49-55.
 Miranda, E. R. (1995). “An Artificial Intelligence Approach to Sound Design”, Computer Music Journal, 19(2):59-75.
 Miranda, E. R. (1995). “Granular Synthesis of Sounds by means of a Cellular Automaton”, Leonardo, 28(4):297-300.
 Miranda, E. R. (1995). “Cellular Automata Synthesis of Acoustic Particles”, Supercomputer, 56:16-23.
 Miranda, E. R. (1994). “From Symbols to Sound: AI-based Investigation of Sound Synthesis”, Contemporary Music Review, 10(2):211-232.
 Miranda, E. R. (1994). “Music composition using cellular automata”, Languages of Design, 2:105-117.
 Miranda, E. R. (1993). “Cellular Automata Music: An Interdisciplinary Project”, Interface, 22(1):3-21.
 Wiggins, G., Miranda, E. R., Smaill, A. and Harris, M. (1993). “A Framework for the Evaluation of Music Representation Systems”, Computer Music Journal, 17(3):31-42.
For information on studying for a post-graduate degree (masters and/or doctorate) at Plymouth University under my guidance, please click on the link below.
Last updated 25 April 2019.